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Notes on Principle of Least Privilege

Terakhir diperbarui:2021-11-19 14:25:04

    Overview

    When using COS, you may need to use a temporary key to grant users permissions to certain resources or operations, configure user policies for your sub-users or collaborators that allow them to help you operate on the resources in COS, or create bucket policies that allow the specified users to perform certain operations on or access certain resources in your bucket. When configuring these permissions, please comply with the principle of least privilege in order to ensure the security of your data assets.

    The principle of least privilege means that when granting permission, you must specify the scope of the permission granted to the specified user for performing what operation and access what resource under what conditions.

    Notes

    You are advised to strictly comply with the principle of least privilege to ensure that a user can only perform the specified operations (e.g., action:GetObject) or access the specified resources (e.g., resource:examplebucket-1250000000/exampleobject.txt).
    To prevent data security risks caused by unexpected and unauthorized operations with excessive permissions, it is strongly recommended that you avoid authorizing a user to access all resources (e.g., resource:*) or perform all operations (e.g., action:*).

    Below are some potential data security risks:

    • Data leakage: if you want to authorize a user to download the specified resources such as examplebucket-1250000000/data/config.json and examplebucket-1250000000/video/ but include examplebucket-1250000000/* in the permission policy, then all objects in the bucket can be downloaded without your authorization, leading to unexpected data leakage.
    • Data overwriting: if you want to authorize a user to upload examplebucket-1250000000/data/config.json and examplebucket-1250000000/video/ but include examplebucket-1250000000/* in the permission policy, then all objects in the bucket can be uploaded without your authorization, which may overwrite unintended objects. To avoid this risk, in addition to following the principle of least privilege, you can retain all versions of data for traceability as instructed in Versioning Overview.
    • Permission leakage: if you want to authorize a user to list the objects in the bucket (cos:GetBucket) but configured cos:* in the permission policy, then all operations on the bucket will be allowed, including reauthorizing the bucket, deleting objects, and deleting the bucket, which puts your data at extremely high risk.

    Usage Guide

    Under the principle of least privilege, you should specify the following information in the policy:

    • principal: you should specify to which sub-account (user ID required), collaborator (user ID required), anonymous user, or user group to grant permission. This is not needed if you use a temporary key for access.
    • statement: enter the corresponding parameters.
      • effect: you must specify whether the policy is to "allow" or "deny".
      • action: you must specify the action to allow or deny. It can be one API operation or a set of API operations.
      • resource: you must specify the resource authorized by the policy. A resource is described in a six-piece format. You can set the resource scope as the specified file (e.g., exampleobject.jpg) or the specified directory (e.g., examplePrefix/*). Unless it is required by your business, please do not grant any user access to all resources using the * wildcard.
      • condition: it describes the condition for the policy to take effect. A condition consists of operator, action key, and action value. A condition value may contain information such as time and IP address.

    Least privilege guide for temporary keys

    When applying for a temporary key, you can set the policy field to grant limited permissions on operations and resources. For more information about how to generate a temporary key, please see Generating and Using Temporary Keys.

    Authorization example

    Granting a user permission to access the specified object using the SDK for Java

    If you want to use the SDK for Java to grant a user permission to download the exampleObject.txt object in the examplebucket-1250000000 bucket, the configuration code should be as follows:

    // Import `java sts sdk` using the integration method with Maven as described on GitHub 
    import java.util.*;
    import org.json.JSONObject; 
    import com.tencent.cloud.CosStsClient;
    public class Demo {
      public static void main(String[] args) {
          TreeMap<String, Object> config = new TreeMap<String, Object>();
           try {
              // Replace with your own SecretId 
              config.put("SecretId", "AKIDHTVVaVR6e3");
              // Replace with your own SecretKey
              config.put("SecretKey", "PdkhT9e2rZCfy6");
               // Validity period of the temporary key, in seconds. Default value: 1800; maximum value: 7200
              config.put("durationSeconds", 1800);
               // Replace with your own bucket
              config.put("bucket", "examplebucket-1250000000");
              // Replace with the region where your bucket resides
              config.put("region", "ap-guangzhou");
               // Change it to the allowed path prefix such as `a.jpg`, `a/*`, or`*`. You can determine the specific path to which files can be uploaded based on your login status
              // If "*" is entered, the user will be allowed to access all resources; unless it is required by your business, please grant the user only the corresponding permission based on the principle of least privilege.
              config.put("allowPrefix", "exampleObject.txt");
               // List of key permissions. The following permissions are required for simple upload, upload using a form, and multipart upload. For other permissions, please visit https://intl.cloud.tencent.com/document/product/436/31923?from_cn_redirect=1
              String[] allowActions = new String[] {
                      // Download data
                      "name/cos:GetObject"
              };
              config.put("allowActions", allowActions);
               JSONObject credential = CosStsClient.getCredential(config);
              // If it succeeds, the temporary key information will be returned and printed out as shown below:
              System.out.println(credential);
          } catch (Exception e) {
              // If it fails, an exception will be thrown
              throw new IllegalArgumentException("no valid secret !");
          }
      }
    }
    

    Granting a user permission to access the specified object using API

    If you want to use an API to grant a user permission to download the exampleObject.txt object in the examplebucket-1250000000 bucket and all objects in the examplePrefix directory, the access policy should be as follows:

    {
    "version": "2.0",
    "statement": [
      {
        "action": [
          "name/cos:GetObject"
        ],
        "effect": "allow",
        "resource": [
          "qcs::cos:ap-beijing:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000/exampleObject.txt",
          "qcs::cos:ap-beijing:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000/examplePrefix/*"
        ]
      }
    ]
    }
    

    Least privilege guide for signatures

    You can perform temporary uploads and downloads using pre-signed URLs. Moreover, if you send a valid pre-signed URL to others, he (or she) can upload or download the objects.

    Note:

    Both temporary and permanent keys can be used to generate pre-signed URLs. However, you are advised to follow the least privilege principle when generating a temporary key and use the temporary key to calculate the signature. Try to avoid using a permanent key that has excessive permissions for the sake of security.

    Authorization example

    Granting a user permission to use a pre-signed URL to download an object

    Use a temporary key to generate a signed download URL and set it to overwrite some public headers to be returned (such as content-type and content-language). The Java code sample is as follows:

    // Pass in the obtained temporary key (tmpSecretId, tmpSecretKey, sessionToken)
    String tmpSecretId = "SECRETID";
    String tmpSecretKey = "SECRETKEY";
    String sessionToken = "TOKEN";
    COSCredentials cred = new BasicSessionCredentials(tmpSecretId, tmpSecretKey, sessionToken);
    // Set the bucket region. For abbreviations of COS regions, see https://intl.cloud.tencent.com/document/product/436/6224?from_cn_redirect=1
    // `clientConfig` contains the set methods to set region, HTTPS (HTTP by default), timeout, and proxy. For detailed usage, please see the source code or the FAQs about the SDK for Java.
    Region region = new Region("COS_REGION");
    ClientConfig clientConfig = new ClientConfig(region);
    // To generate a URL that uses the HTTPS protocol, configure this line (recommended).
    // clientConfig.setHttpProtocol(HttpProtocol.https);
    // Generate a COS client.
    COSClient cosClient = new COSClient(cred, clientConfig);
    // Enter the Bucket name in the format of `BucketName-APPID`. 
    String bucketName = "examplebucket-1250000000";
    // Object key, the unique identifier of the object in the bucket.
    String key = "exampleobject";
    GeneratePresignedUrlRequest req =
          new GeneratePresignedUrlRequest(bucketName, key, HttpMethodName.GET);
    // Set the http header returned for download.
    ResponseHeaderOverrides responseHeaders = new ResponseHeaderOverrides();
    String responseContentType = "image/x-icon";
    String responseContentLanguage = "zh-CN";
    // Set the returned header to contain filename information.
    String responseContentDispositon = "filename=\"exampleobject\"";
    String responseCacheControl = "no-cache";
    String cacheExpireStr =
          DateUtils.formatRFC822Date(new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() + 24L * 3600L * 1000L));
    responseHeaders.setContentType(responseContentType);
    responseHeaders.setContentLanguage(responseContentLanguage);
    responseHeaders.setContentDisposition(responseContentDispositon);
    responseHeaders.setCacheControl(responseCacheControl);
    responseHeaders.setExpires(cacheExpireStr);
    req.setResponseHeaders(responseHeaders);
    // Setting the signature expiration time (optional). If it is not configured, the signature expiration time in ClientConfig (1 hour) is used by default.
    // Set the signature to expire in half an hour.
    Date expirationDate = new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() + 30L * 60L * 1000L);
    req.setExpiration(expirationDate);
    URL url = cosClient.generatePresignedUrl(req);
    System.out.println(url.toString());
    cosClient.shutdown();
    

    Least privilege guide for user policy

    A user policy is a user permission policy created in the CAM Console to grant a user permission to access certain resources in COS. For more information, please see Access Policy Language Overview.

    Authorization example

    Granting an account permission to access the specified object

    If you want to grant an account whose UIN is 100000000001 permission to download the exampleObject.txt object in the examplebucket-1250000000 bucket, the access policy should be as follows:

    {
      "version": "2.0",
      "principal": {
         "qcs": [
            "qcs::cam::uin/100000000001:uin/100000000001"
         ]
      },
       "statement": [
           {
               "action": [
                   "name/cos:GetObject"
               ],
               "effect": "allow",
               "resource": [
                   "qcs::cos:ap-guangzhou:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com/exampleObject.txt"
               ]
           }
       ]
    }
    

    Granting a sub-account permission to access the specified directory

    If you want to grant a sub-account whose UIN is 100000000011 (root account UNI: 100000000001) permission to download the objects in the examplePrefix directory in the examplebucket-1250000000 bucket, the access policy should be as follows:

    {
     "version": "2.0",
     "principal": {
        "qcs": [
           "qcs::cam::uin/100000000001:uin/100000000011"
        ]
     },
      "statement": [
          {
              "action": [
                  "name/cos:GetObject"
              ],
              "effect": "allow",
              "resource": [
                  "qcs::cos:ap-guangzhou:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000.ap-guangzhou.myqcloud.com/examplePrefix/*"
              ]
          }
      ]
    }
    

    Least privilege guide for bucket policy

    A bucket policy is an access policy configured for a bucket to allow the specified user to perform certain operations on the bucket and resources in it. For more information, please see Adding Bucket Policies.

    Authorization example

    Granting a sub-account permission to access the specified objects

    If you want to grant a sub-account whose UIN is 100000000011 (root account UNI: 100000000001) permission to download the exampleObject.txt object in the examplebucket-1250000000 bucket and all objects in the examplePrefix directory, the access policy should be as follows:

    {
    "Statement": [
      {
        "Action": [
          "name/cos:GetObject"
        ],
        "Effect": "allow",
        "Principal": {
          "qcs": [
            "qcs::cam::uin/100000000001:uin/100000000011"
          ]
        },
        "Resource": [
          "qcs::cos:ap-beijing:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000/exampleObject.txt",
          "qcs::cos:ap-beijing:uid/1250000000:examplebucket-1250000000/examplePrefix/*"
        ]
      }
    ],
    "version": "2.0"
    }
    
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