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HAVING Syntax

Last updated: 2022-04-18 15:01:37

    The HAVING syntax is used to filter grouped and aggregated data. The difference between HAVING and WHERE is that HAVING is executed on data after grouping (GROUP BY) and before ordering (ORDER BY) while WHERE is executed on the original data before aggregation.

    Syntax Format

    * | SELECT column, aggregate function GROUP BY [ column name | alias | serial number ] HAVING aggregate function operator value
    

    The operator can be =, <>, >, <, >=, <=, BETWEEN, IN, or LIKE.

    Syntax Example

    Get URLs whose average response time is greater than 1,000 ms in descending order:

    * | 
    select 
     avg(responseTime) as time_avg, 
     URL 
    group by 
     URL 
    having 
     avg(responseTime)> 1000 
    order by 
     avg(responseTime) desc 
    limit 
     10000
    

    The filter condition is the average response time of each URL, which is the aggregate result, and therefore, WHERE cannot be used for data filtering.

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